iOS History

iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that presently powers many of the company’s mobile devices, including the iPhoneiPad, and iPod Touch. It is the second most popular mobile operating system globally after Android.

Originally unveiled in 2007 for the iPhone, iOS has been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPod Touch(September 2007) and the iPad (January 2010). As of January 2017, Apple’s App Store contains more than 2.2 million iOS applications, 1 million of which are native for iPads. These mobile apps have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times.

The iOS user interface is based upon direct manipulation, using multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipetappinch, and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface. Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device (one common result is the undo command) or rotating it in three dimensions (one common result is switching between portrait and landscape mode). Apple has been significantly praised for incorporating thorough accessibility functions into iOS, enabling users with vision and hearing disabilities to properly use its products.

Major versions of iOS are released annually. The current version, iOS 11, was released on September 19, 2017. It is available for all iOS devices with 64-bit processors; the iPhone 5S and later iPhone models, the iPad (2017), the iPad Air and later iPad Air models, all iPad Pro models, the iPad Mini 2 and later iPad Mini models, and the sixth-generation iPod Touch.

History

Original iOS logo, used until 2013 (left) and logo used 2013–17 (right)

In 2005, when Steve Jobs began planning the iPhone, he had a choice to either “shrink the Mac, which would be an epic feat of engineering, or enlarge the iPod”. Jobs favored the former approach but pitted the Macintosh and iPod teams, led by Scott Forstall and Tony Fadell, respectively, against each other in an internal competition, with Forstall winning by creating the iPhone OS. The decision enabled the success of the iPhone as a platform for third-party developers: using a well-known desktop operating system as its basis allowed the many third-party Mac developers to write software for the iPhone with minimal retraining. Forstall was also responsible for creating a software development kit for programmers to build iPhone apps, as well as an App Store within iTunes.[9][10]

The operating system was unveiled with the iPhone at the Macworld Conference & Expo on January 9, 2007, and released in June of that year.[11][12][13] At the time of its unveiling in January, Steve Jobs claimed: “iPhone runs OS X” and runs “desktop applications”,[14][15] but at the time of the iPhone’s release, the operating system was renamed “iPhone OS”.[16] Initially, third-party native applications were not supported. Jobs’ reasoning was that developers could build web applications through the Safari web browser that “would behave like native apps on the iPhone”.[17][18] In October 2007, Apple announced that a native Software Development Kit (SDK) was under development and that they planned to put it “in developers’ hands in February”.[19][20][21] On March 6, 2008, Apple held a press event, announcing the iPhone SDK.[22][23]

The iOS App Store was opened on July 10, 2008 with an initial 500 applications available.[24] This quickly grew to 3,000 in September 2008,[25] 15,000 in January 2009,[26] 50,000 in June 2009,[27] 100,000 in November 2009,[28][29] 250,000 in August 2010,[30][31] 650,000 in July 2012,[32] 1 million in October 2013,[33][34] 2 million in June 2016,[35][36][37] and 2.2 million in January 2017.[38][39] As of March 2016, 1 million apps are natively compatible with the iPad tablet computer.[40] These apps have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times.[35] App intelligence firm Sensor Tower has estimated that the App Store will reach 5 million apps by the year 2020.[41]

In September 2007, Apple announced the iPod Touch, a redesigned iPod based on the iPhone form factor.[42] In January 2010, Apple announced the iPad, featuring a larger screen than the iPhone and iPod Touch, and designed for web browsing, media consumption, and reading.[43]

In June 2010, Apple rebranded iPhone OS as “iOS”. The trademark “IOS” had been used by Cisco for over a decade for its operating system, IOS, used on its routers. To avoid any potential lawsuit, Apple licensed the “IOS” trademark from Cisco.[44]

In October 2016, Apple opened its first iOS Developer Academy in Naples inside University of Naples Federico II‘s new campus.[45][46]

Software updates

Platform usage as measured by the App Store on September 3, 2018.[47]

  iOS 11 (85%)
  iOS 10 (10%)
  iOS 9 and earlier (5%)

Apple provides major updates to the iOS operating system annually via iTunes and also, for iOS 5 and later, over-the-air.[48] The latest version is iOS 11, released on September 19, 2017.[49] It is available for iPhone 5S and later, iPad Air and later, iPad ProiPad Mini 2 and later, and sixth-generation iPod Touch.[50]

Originally, iPod Touch users had to pay for system software updates. This was due to accounting rules making the device not a “subscription device” like iPhone or Apple TV, and significant enhancements to the device required payments.[51][52] The requirement to pay to upgrade caused iPod Touch owners to stay away from updates.[53] However, in September 2009, a change in accounting rules won tentative approval, significantly affecting both Apple’s earnings and stock price, and allowing iPod Touch updates to be delivered for free.[54][55]

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